All roads lead to mitochondria (it seems)—the “power house” of our cells. This paper suggests that DBS has a positive affect on mitochondrial volume in the brain region that houses dopamine cells. We know that DBS alters a number of physiologic parameters, and while it’s likely that changes in mitochondria are temporally downstream of the immediate therapeutic effects, it remains an interesting finding because of other theories regarding mitochondrial dysfunction and Parkinson’s disease.
A look at how D1 dopamine receptors might play a role in temporal processing (based on an action performed). Interestingly, a 2 Hz (delta band) stimulation improves performance.